All posts by Gary

About Gary

Piano Teacher with over 40 years experience, teaching in the Fort Lauderdale area. Teaches exclusively at All County Music in Tamarac FL.

Altered Dominant Scales

They all go over dominants

There are various ways to alter a scale to go over dominants. For instance, C D D# E F G A Bb C is a dominant scale because of C, E and Bb, forming a C7 chord. The D# can be spelled as Eb. The passing tone does not change the feel.

C D E F G A Bb B C can either sync with C7 or Cmaj7, so it is a bit of a chameleon. C D E F# G A Bb C is either Lydian with (b)7 or Mixolydian with #4. Choose your own name.

In general any scale that uses 3 and (b)7 is a dominant scale, and that includes also the “alt dominant” scale, which is actually one of many altered dominant scales. Octatonic belongs in this group also, as well as whole tone scales. There are too many to list here.

Altered Major Scales

Still major, but more exotic

Any scale that uses 3 and maj7 is considered major and not dominant. It easily fits over an Xmaj7 chord or that chord altered. So a scale like Lydian, for example, is considered major in spite of #4, but it is not altered because it is a mode.

 Gypsy major is perhaps the most used altered major scale without a passing tone. A passing tone is when a number gets repeated, like 4 and #4, or (b)7 and maj7. There are a number of bebop scales that are major, altered, and not dominant, often with confusing and useless names.

Altered Minor Scales

Still minor, but more exotic

In general any scale that uses b3 is considered minor. A minor scale may have either (b)7 or maj7, but most of them use (b)7. This first group of scales are all modes, so they don’t belong here:

  • 1 2 b3 4 5 6 (b)7 8, Dorian
  • 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 (b)7 8, Aeolian or natural minor
  • 1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 (b)7 8, Phrygian
  • 1 b2 b3 4 b5 b6 (b)7 8, Locrian

Now here are legitimate altered minor scales:

  • 1 2 b3 #4 5 6 maj7 8
  • 1 2 b3 4 5 6 (b)7 maj7 8
  • 1 2 b3 4 5 #5 6 (b)7 8
  • 1 2 b3 #4 5 6 (b)7 8
  • 1 2 b3 4 #4 5 6 (b)7 8
  • 1 2 b3 4 5 #5 6 (b)7 8
  • 1 b2 2 b3 4 5 6 (b)7 8

Just remember, if it’s not a mode, it’s altered. It can’t have 3, because that becomes major. Your scale must have b3. (b)7 or maj7 can be used, or both. You can repeat a degree, meaning you are adding passing tones, and there is not stopping you from adding more than one passing tone, like this:

1 b2 2 b3 4 #4 5 6 (b)7 8




More Old Popular Music

Eleanor Rigby, popular for 52 years

  • Eleanor Rigby, a song by the Beatles, was released in 1966, and I first heard it in my first year of college. It was written primarily by Paul McCartney, and credited to Lennon–McCartney. I was blown away by the originality.
  • Eleanor Rigby broke sharply with popular music conventions, both musically and lyrically. (This is a common theme, typical of the greatest music ever written for hundreds of years.)
  • Eleanor Rigby employs a classical string ensemble with 8 studio musicians, comprising four violins, two violas, and two cellos. The score was composed by producer George Martin.
  • The players kept moving away from the microphones until Martin ordered them to “Stop moving the chairs!”.

Is this “classical” music? And do we care about the label? It is without doubt one of the most original songs ever written.

The Four Seasons, popular for almost 80 years – (but published 293 years ago)

  • Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was born on March 4, 1678, in Venice, Italy.
  • At the age of 15, he began studying to become a priest. He was ordained in 1703.
  • He was known locally for hi flaming red hair, so he known locally as “il Prete Rosso,” (“the Red Priest”.)
  • His career in the clergy was short-lived. Due to chronic shortness of breath, he was unable to play wind instruments – could he have had ashma? Health problems prevented him from delivering mass. It sounds to me as though he was looking for an excuse to compose!
  • From around 1717 to 1721 he wrote his four-part masterpiece, The Four Seasons, and they were published in 1725, 293 years ago. But the did not apparently enjoy continuous popularity.
  • The four concertos were written as program music – music with a narrative element – and so some of the earliest program music ever written.
  • Vivaldi’s fame as a composer and musician in early life faded later. He had to compete with younger composers and their more modern styles. He died in poverty in Vienna on July 28, 1741, buried in a simple grave without a funeral service.
  • The first recording of The Four Seasons is from around 1940, with the exact year in dispute, but it is clear that around that time Vivaldi’s compositions became a hit, and it has remained enormously popular ever since, so let’s say they has been very popular for around 78 years. We could say that in terms of popularity, Vivaldi was a late bloomer.

The Planets, extremely popular for almost 100 years, delayed premiere

  • The Planets, Op. 32, is a seven-movement orchestral suite by the English composer Gustav Holst, written between 1914 and 1916. Each movement of the suite is named after a planet of the Solar System and its corresponding astrological character as defined by Holst.
  • It has remained one of the most popular pieces of music ever written right to this very moment, and if you listen carefully, it could be something written for a movie in 2018. But it’s over a century years old.
  • The work was not heard in a complete public performance, however, until some years after it was completed. The first complete public performance was finally given in London by Albert Coates conducting the London Symphony Orchestra on 15 November 1920.

So in 1916 the world was not yet ready for this music by Holst. It was too revolutionary!

Pomp and Circumstances, popular for 117 years

  • In 1901, Sir Edward Elgar composed Pomp And Circumstance March No. 1 In D major. The title comes from Shakespeare’s Othello – “Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war!”
  • Elgar conducted his own work at the premiere.
  • The march was played two days later at a London Promenade Concert in London. The audience “rose and yelled”.
  • It is, of course, still played at countless graduation ceremonies. It is unlikely that anyone will not recognize the famous theme.

So this piece was reasonably successful from the very first performance – 117 years ago, and it picked up more and more popularity over time.

Gymnopédie No. 3, popular for 130 years

Erik Satie was born May 17, 1866, and died July 1, 1925, Paris. He was a French composer whose unconventional style was a major influence on younger musicians then and now.

  • The title “Gymnopédies” comes from a made-up profession Satie invented for himself. What is a gymnopedist? Someone who writes Gymnopédies, according to Satie.
  • When Satie entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1879, at around age 13, his teachers thought he was a lazy kid with poor technique, and he washed out. He tried again 1885 at age 19, with the same result.
  • Three years later, in 1888, he published the first of these now-famous piano compositions. Thank God Satie did pay much attention to teachers.
  • He was called “a clumsy but subtle technician” in a book on contemporary French composers published in 1911. He definitely had the last laugh.
  • The Gymnopédies defy traditional harmonies and structures. Satie was a quiet rebel his entire life.
  • Satie was friends with, among others, both Debussy and Ravel. In 1898, Debussy published an orchestration of “Gymnopédies”. Quite obviously Debussy did not think Satie was a “a clumsy but subtle technician”. Once again little minds dismissed  far greater minds as inferior.
  • Blood, Sweat & Tears won a Grammy for their 1968 interpretation Gymnopédie No. 3.
  • Satie’s music has been used in movies going back to the early 1900s and will be in featured in “Kampai! Sake Sisters”, scheduled for release in 2019. We can say without a moment’s hesitation that Satie is one of the greatest popular composers of all time.

The Messiah, popular for 276 years.

  • On April 13, 1742, Handel’s oratorio received its premiere in Dublin. German-born Handel’s name drew such a crowd that there was a fear of audience members injuring each other due to overcrowding at the Messiah’s Dublin premiere – Handel was a rock star in his time.
  • Jonathan Swift, who wrote Gulliver’s Travels, threatened to publicly forbid singers from St. Patrick’s Cathedral from participation in the premiere of The Messiah in Ireland. He objected to the idea of making religious music so popular.
  • The Messiah was written really really REALLY fast. The whole composition was composed by Handel in only 24 days, and the whole oratorio is extremely long. It is estimated that he wrote 15 notes per minute, on average, which is a speed I can’t match in 2018 using Finale.
  • In the 2014-2015 season alone, 13 out of the 22 largest American orchestras were scheduled to perform some part of this this piece 38 times.
  • So without any doubt, Handel belongs at the top of any list of “greatest popular composers of all time”.

Blues Scales

They are everywhere

Here are the blues scales.

  • 1 2 b3 4 5 6 (b)7 8
  • 1 b3 4 5 (b)7 8

There are various ways to alter the pentatonic scale with at least one passing tone, and perhaps the most used alternate scales are the two blues scales:

1 2 #2 3 5 6 8 where the passing tone is #2/b3.

Then we have the other form:

1 b3 4 #4 5 (b)7 8, where the passing tone is #4/b5.

Here is a little piece I wrote using major blues patterns in the right hand and a typical blues pattern in the left hand. The LH intervals form the outline of X, X6 and X (b)7 chords.

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Thumb Slip Blues

Here is a PDF of some major and minor blues scales in all keys. I’m giving them a separate place, but they are also altered major and minor scales.

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Blues Scales


A scale used around the world

We can immediately start playing major pentatonic scales by using a major scale and then eliminating two notes:

  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 maj7 8
  • 1 2 3 5 6 8

Minor pentatonic uses the same notes, but just as various modes sound different, it sounds very different from major pentatonic. We start with Dorian:

  • 1 2 b3 4 5 6 (b)7 8
  • 1 b3 4 5 (b)7 8

There are various ways to fill in the pentatonic scale with at least one passing tone, and perhaps the most used alternate scales are the two blues scales:

1 2 #2 3 5 6 8 where the passing tone is #2/b3.

Then we have the other form:

1 b3 4 #4 5 (b)7 8, where the passing tone is #4/b5.

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Pentatonic Scales


Modal music


“Modes for modes”, and “moods for modes”

In today’s music the word “modal” simply describes music that can be written using only the white keys on the piano. Music played in these “white” modes is simple to play, and writing this music down is simple, direct and logical. They can all be transposed to 11 other keys, which makes the whole system look much more complicated, but it does not change the sound of  modes. Each mode has a very different “feel” and is used to create different “moods”. Although all modes use the same set of notes, as we change the focus of which note in each mode is the “tonic” or “first note” of the scale, we perceive that set differently. Here are the 7 modes:

  1. Ionian or major
  2. Dorian (also called Dorian minor), b3 b7
  3. Phyrgian (also called Phrygian minor), b2 b3 b6 b7
  4. Lydian (also called Lydian major), #4
  5. Mixolydian (also called Mixolydian major, b7
  6. Aeolian (also called Aeolian minor or natural minor), b3 b6 b7
  7. Locrian (no other name), b2 b3 b5 b6b 7



Bebop Scale Summary

They are just regular scales with passing tones.

I got these names from doing some research, but frankly most of them are a total waste of time. I’m going to leave the PDF as is, for the time being, but I’m quite disgusted with it because of the names. You are probably better off just learning modes and altered scales, the important ones, the ones that are distinctive and useful, then seeing all the so-called bebop scales as common scales adding some kind of passing tone.

For instance, Dominant Bebop is Myxolydian with maj7 inserted between (b) 7 and 8, so 1 2 3 4 5 6 (b)7 maj7.

Dorian bebop is the same thing with one change:  1 2 b3 4 5 6 (b)7 maj7 8.

Melodic minor bebop add an extra note: 1 2 b3 4 5 #5 6 maj7 8.

Harmonic minor bebop is not harmonic, so it’s a stupid name. It is shown as: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 (b)7 maj7 8. That could just as easily be natural minor with a passing tone, so the names become nothing but definitions and are counter-intuitive.But for what it’s worth, here is a summary of what some of these things look like:

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Bebop Scales